This page contains the release notes for the latest updates to respR.  

Version 2.3.2 – 2023-11-15

Minor changes to unit tests and documentation.

Version 2.3.1 – 2023-06-05

Ever been reading a paper and wanted to compare metabolic rates to your own results but they were in a different unit? New in this release is convert_MR(), a function for converting between different units of oxygen uptake or production rate. These can be absolute, mass-specific, or area-specific rates. See help("convert_MR") for examples. It also works on convert_rate or convert_rate.ft objects so you can change the output units of a respR analysis without having to re-run the whole thing.

To help with this new functionality, this version has undergone a major update around unit handling. In case you didn’t know, respR accepts different variations in unit formatting. E.g. "mg per h", "mg H", "mg hr-1", etc. are all recognised as mgO2/h. There’s been a substantial internal update to unit recognition to use regex instead of a brute force approach. This system is more robust and accepts even more variations in style; units can be formed from abbreviated versions or words (e.g. mg or milligram), separated by a space, forward slash, dot, or underscore, are case-insensitive, and accept other variations (e.g km2, km -2, km^2, kmsq, etc). In addition a few new units of dissolved oxygen (DO) and metabolic rate are now accepted. See below.

A couple of minor but handy changes: salinity, temperature, and atmospheric pressure are now saved to summary tables in convert_rate() and convert_rate.ft() outputs to help with keeping track of results from different experiments; and in inspect(), inspect.ft(), and oxy_crit() you can now specify columns by name as well as column number.

Lastly, a major change is that import_file() has been deprecated. It is still fully functional, but will not be updated and will be removed in the next major release version (i.e. v3.0, although this is not planned for any time soon). This was only ever intended to be a convenience function for those completely new to R, and was always experimental as there is no way we could test against every variation of oxygen sensor system output files. However, we found some users were overly reliant on it and on encountering a problem with a file asking us to update the function rather than try to import it themselves. To our knowledge, every oxygen sensor system exports data in formats (e.g. .csv, .txt, .xlsx) which can be easily imported into R using generic functions such as read.csv. This is a basic skill anyone using R should be comfortable with, and also allows for much more control and the ability to troubleshoot issues.

==================================== New =======================================

  • NEW: convert_MR()- A new function for converting metabolic rates between different units of oxygen uptake or production. See examples in help("convert_MR") and here.
  • NEW: convert_rate(), convert_rate.ft() - Salinity (S), temperature (t), and pressure (P) inputs are now saved as columns in the final $summary table. These can be entered even if they are not required for conversions to the output rate unit, which may help with keeping track of results across different experiments.
  • NEW: inspect(), inspect.ft(), oxy_crit() - Column names can now be used to specify columns, not just column number. See example here.
  • NEW: Raw data can now be in these units of dissolved oxygen (DO), and can be used for conversions in convert_DO or in convert_rate as the oxy.unit of the original data: ul/l, ul/kg, mm3/kg (equivalent to ul/kg), cm3/kg (equivalent to ml/kg), ppm (i.e. parts per million, equivalent to mg/kg). In addition, "cc" (abbreviation for cubic centimetres, as sometimes used in older publications) is recognised as cm3 (e.g. cc/L as DO, cc/h as a metabolic rate).
  • NEW: The following units of oxygen amount can now be used in convert_rate or convert_rate.ft as part of the output unit, or in convert_MR to convert between units of oxygen uptake: mm3, cm3, ul. e.g. ul/h or cm3/day/kg, etc.
  • NEW: Tested with R version 4.3.0

=================================== Changes ====================================

  • CHANGE: import_file() has been deprecated. It is still fully functional but will not be updated and will be removed in a future version. See above.
  • CHANGE: Units are now parsed to a standardised format in outputs. For example, in convert_rate if you specify "MG per h" or "mg h-1" as the output unit this will appear as "mgO2/hr" in the output object; "ml min-1 kg-1" becomes "mLO2/min/kg", etc. This means you can be sure the unit is being recognised correctly even if your input is formed differently.
  • CHANGE: unit_args() updated for new units.
  • CHANGE: Errors and warnings have been revised to be more concise and informative, especially about what function they originate from.

Version 2.2.0 – 2023-01-06

This update focuses on extending to the flowthrough respirometry workflow the functionality introduced in v2.1 for exploring and selecting final rates. The online vignette has been updated with some examples.

==================================== New =======================================

  • NEW: convert_rate.ft - Objects containing multiple rates can now be plotted in three different ways to help explore the results and decide how to summarise them. This pairs particularly well with select_rate.ft for exploring and selecting a final reportable rate.
  • NEW: select_rate.ft - New function for selecting from amongst multiple rates in convert_rate.ft objects in flowthrough respirometry analyses. It is actually a simple wrapper for the select_rate function, so you can use either.
  • NEW: select_rate - has the additional methods rep_omit, rank_omit, and manual_omit for omitting rates.
  • NEW: select_rate - has the additional methods intercept and slope for selecting based on the respective summary table columns. This is mostly useful for selecting from flowthrough rate results where these parameters can indicate the stability of the delta oxygen region rates are derived from (in other analyses slope is essentially equivalent to the rate).

=================================== Changes ====================================

  • CHANGE: convert_rate.ft - Output objects have been restructured and new elements (e.g. $dataframe) brought forward from the input objects to enable plotting.
  • CHANGE: convert_rate - The y-axis range in the lower panel of type = "rate" plots now adapts to the range of rate values plotted if pos has been used. You can use this to get a better idea of range of rates in a particular region.
  • CHANGE: In summary tables the rate_b1 column (the slope in the linear regression model used to calculate the rate) has been renamed to slope_b1.

==================================== Fixes =====================================

  • FIX: convert_rate.ft - Now correctly converts rates to output units using nanomoles (nmol) and picomoles (pmol) (e.g. pmol/min, nmol/hr/ug, etc.).

Version 2.1.0 – 2022-12-06

This is a huge update that finally introduces what many users have been asking for - full support for analysing intermittent-flow respirometry data. This was always possible but required use of more advanced R methods. Now - no more for loops!

This version introduces two new functions for easily extracting rates from every replicate in intermittent-flow data, and

There is also a major focus on exploring and filtering results to help with outputting a final reportable rate for an experiment. There is a large update to convert_rate which adds new visualisation options, and the new function select_rate which is ideal for exploring and filtering the results of analyses using almost any criteria you can think of and outputting a final rate. It works with both intermittent-flow results and the outputs of other analyses. See the updated vignettes here and here for examples.

================================ Highlights ====================================

  • - A new function designed for intermittent-flow respirometry data. It allows you to manually extract rates from the same row or time range in every replicate.

  • - A new function designed for intermittent-flow respirometry data. It allows you to automatically extract the most linear, lowest, and highest rates from every replicate.

  • convert_rate objects containing multiple rates can now be plotted in three different ways to help explore the results and decide how to summarise them. This pairs particularly well with select_rate for exploring and selecting a final reportable rate.

  • select_rate - This function replaces subset_rate which was introduced in v2.0, and has been revised to be much more useful. It was original intended to explore and subset auto_rate results, but we realised it was just as useful for exploring, summarising and subsetting other outputs. Therefore, as of this version it now works on convert_rate objects, and is intended as the final step in analysis for selecting a final rate. It can summarise and select rates based on all sorts of different criteria, for example r-squared ranges, regions of the data, duration, highest and lowest rates by number or percentile, and much more. As well as summarising auto_rate results, it pairs particularly well with the new and functions. For example, you can now use to extract a rate from multiple replicates, then use select_rate to extract, for instance, the lowest 10th percentile of rates, and pipe the result to mean() to obtain a final rate. All in only a few lines of code.

==================================== New =======================================

  • NEW: - New function for manually extracting rates from every replicate in intermittent-flow respirometry data.
  • NEW: - New function for automatically extracting rates from every replicate in intermittent-flow respirometry data.
  • NEW: convert_rate - Objects containing multiple rates can now be plotted in three different ways to help explore the results.
  • NEW: select_rate - A general function that works on convert_rate objects to summarise and filter rates to arrive at a final rate.
  • NEW: Nanomoles (nmol) and picomoles (pmol) can now be used as the oxygen amount in output rates in convert_rate (e.g. pmol/min, nmol/hr/ug, etc.). Useful for micro-respirometry. They can also be used as dissolved oxygen units in convert_DO (e.g. pmol/L, nmol/kg, etc.).
  • NEW: import_file - Support for Pyro Workbench files. This is experimental as we have only one sample file to test it with. Please contact us if you have any issues with these files or can send us sample files for testing.
  • NEW: Tested with R version 4.2.0

=================================== Changes ====================================

  • CHANGE: subset_rate has been renamed to select_rate and now only works on convert_rate objects. It no longer plots, but the plotting functionality has been added to convert_rate and expanded. Since outputs retain the convert_rate class they can still be plotted. To plot after a subsetting operation use pipes or call plot on the resulting object.
  • CHANGE: All summary tables now have the additional column $rep as the first column. This contains the replicate number that the rate came from when using and on intermittent-flow data. For other cases it is filled with NA.
  • CHANGE: adjust_rate and convert_rate now have the additional element $dataframe in the output. This is the raw data carried forward from whatever object was initially entered. It was always present in the $inputs, but is now also placed at the top level for convenience. If numeric values were entered it will be present as NULL.
  • CHANGE: auto_rate - For the linear method, the kernel density analysis results are now not printed to the console when using summary(). Only the summary table will be printed, making for a cleaner print out. This can be changed back to the old behaviour by passing print.kds = TRUE in summary.
  • CHANGE: The plot_ar function for plotting auto_rate results has been removed, but the plotting functionality has been added to convert_rate as the type = "overlap" option. Therefore you will need to convert auto_rate results before plotting them. (If you really need to you can actually still plot auto_rate objects by calling the internal function overlap.p using three colons, i.e. respR:::overlap.p(object))
  • CHANGE: convert_rate, convert_rate.ft - The behaviour introduced in v2.0.1 where summary() would print only a condensed version of the summary table has been reversed. This is because it made it difficult to view the results of selection operations in select_rate on columns not printed to the console. The full table is now printed, even though it is quite large. You can still use export = TRUE to export the table as a data frame for easier viewing.
  • CHANGE: subset_data - No longer prints a subset summary to the console (i.e. quiet = TRUE is the default).
  • CHANGE: select_rate - The "time_omit" and "row_omit" methods have a progress bar when n is a vector of three or more values. This is because these methods are extremely computationally intensive when this is the case and may take some time. If possible you should always use a time or row range of lower and upper values instead (e.g. n = c(10, 20) instead of 10:20).
  • CHANGE: The by = "proportion" method has been removed from calc_rate and subset_data.
  • CHANGE: Some warnings have now been made messages instead.

==================================== Fixes =====================================

  • FIX: subset_data now works correctly when there are NA in the data. Note however you should always inspect() your data and remove or replace NAs to avoid obscure errors or unintended behaviour.
  • FIX: adjust_rate - Fix for incorrect messages when a non-numeric object is entered as the by input.
  • FIX: auto_rate - Fix for error message when using pos in summary.
  • FIX: auto_rate, calc_rate - Warns if the input contains only one row of data.
  • FIX: import_file - Fix for incorrect file extension when export is used.
  • FIX: Internal S3 generic functions (e.g. print.auto_rate etc.) should no longer appear in the function index.

Version 2.0.2 – 2022-03-23

Minor changes to help documentation.

Version 2.0.1 – 2022-03-14

Only a month after 2.0.0, this is a quick update that fixes a few bugs, adds a couple of enhancements, and has quite a large revision to the newest function subset_rate.

==================================== New =======================================

  • NEW: The calc_rate function can now be used to calculate background rates for use in adjust_rate as the by adjustment input. In other words, the by input is no longer limited to using only objects (or numerics). While using a combination of subset_data and is the recommended way of determining background rates, there are circumstances when getting a rate via calc_rate might be easier (of course, these rates could always previously have been entered manually as a numeric value). See here for further information about this.
  • NEW: The convert_rate and convert_rate.ft summary table elements in the output now contain all rate regression parameters, data locations, adjustments (if applied), units, and more. This makes it much easier to save and keep track of all relevant data regarding rate results. They can be saved by extracting $summary directly from the output, or using summary(object, export = TRUE). Note, summary() only prints a condensed version to the console as the full table is too large to print.

=============================== subset_rate() ==================================

  • NEW: subset_rate can now reorder auto_rate results in various ways. This can be useful in several situations. See help docs and vignette on website for more information and examples.
  • NEW: There is a new "rank" method for subsetting based on the $rank column of the summary table. The rank always refers to the original rate ranking or ordering as determined in the original auto_rate call, which is retained unchanged regardless of how the results are subsequently subset or reordered.
  • NEW: There is a new "oxygen" method for subsetting based on oxygen values in the raw data. This can be used to constrain results to particular oxygen ranges. Conversely, to exclude particular oxygen values or ranges you can use the oxygen_omit method. See help("subset_rate") for specific details.
  • CHANGE: For the "row_omit" and "time_omit" methods, the n input can now be a numeric vector of any length. Regressions (i.e. rates) fit across any time or row value in n will be omitted. A continuous range of rows or time can still be entered by using regular R syntax for creating vectors such as n = 10:20 or seq().
  • CHANGE: For the rate, rsq, row, time, and density methods the n input of two values can now be entered in any order.
  • CHANGE: The plot input default has been changed to FALSE, and the internal plotting for this function has been revised to be much quicker and show more plots (up to a max of 20 from 9). See help file for more info but briefly, this plotting functionality is intended to provide a quick view of how many rates remain after subsetting and where they occur in the data. In many cases it does not need to be run in every subset_rate call.
  • CHANGE: subset_rate and auto_rate now behave better with objects which contain zero results, and allow piping operations to continue even if an empty object is encountered somewhere in the pipe. This can occur if subsetting criteria excludes every rate. These auto_rate_subset objects with no results now work with print, summary, and mean giving a message that they contain no rates but still printing to the console. subset_rate will now not stop if an empty object is input as x or piped from a previous subset_rate operation. Trying to plot these empty objects in plot or plot_ar and also will not stop any pipes, and will result in a console message but no plot.

=============================== General Changes ================================

  • CHANGE: auto_rate output objects have been rearranged slightly to be more consistent.
  • CHANGE: If method = "mean" has not been user-specified, adjust_rate now issues a message if multiple rates have been entered in by confirming the mean value will be used for adjustments.
  • CHANGE: Internal codes changes mean the packages assertthat, ggplot2, cowplot, broom, and gridExtra are no longer dependencies.

==================================== Fixes =====================================

  • FIX: adjust_rate - Fix for warnings when using auto_rate objects which have been passed through subset_rate with paired or dynamic adjustment methods.
  • FIX: plot_ar - Fix for incorrect subset number appearing in plot titles.
  • FIX: plot_ar - Fix for the pos and highlight inputs sometimes failing to produce expected behaviour.


Version 2.0.0 – 2022-02-17

It’s been a long time - over two and a half years (!) since the last update. We are happy to see respR being used by the respirometry community in that time. Amazingly we have picked up over 30 citations, so we are very grateful and happy that so many scientists are finding the package of use.

We are glad to announce that respR has reached version 2.0 and is finally available on CRAN.

v2.0 has been a massive and thorough update where almost every corner of the package has been revised, rewritten, streamlined and tested. In addition, we have added a lot of new functionality which you can read about below.

We have also updated and added even more vignettes, function guides and more on our brand new website detailing all the old and new functionality.

Unfortunately, a major version update inevitably comes with some code breaking changes, and this one is no exception. We thought long and hard about introducing changes that might break code written for v1.1, but made the decision to fix as many as possible of the inconsistencies, bugs, and poor design decisions we made while we had the chance with this major version update. The upside of this is that the package will be much easier to update in the future without breaking existing code.

We have created a page on the new website to detail how v2.0 code has changed and how you may go about revising your earlier code to update it. The good news is most of these changes will be very easy to make. If you have submitted code or are in the process of submitting it as part of a publication, we want this code to remain reproducible long into the future. See here for how you can link to resources that will allow anyone to run v1.1 code and keep these analyses reproducible.

We are happy to say the package has never been more stable and even easier to use, and it is now on a great base upon which to build future functionality. Here are the major changes in this version:

================================== HIGHLIGHTS ==================================

  • NEW: respR is now available on CRAN. It can be installed just like any other package via the RStudio package manager tab or by running install.packages("respR"). If you want to be on the bleeding edge, for example test out the latest dev version, you can use install.github() and the ref input to select a different branch.
  • NEW: subset_rate function. This allows auto_rate results to be explored and filtered according to various criteria.
  • NEW: plot_ar function. This plots auto_rate objects in a way that visualises how results are distributed within the dataset. Pairs very nicely with subset_rate above.
  • NEW: adjust_rate contains several new methods of adjusting for background respiration, including the ability to perform adjustments from paired or concurrent blank chambers, and to perform dynamic adjustments for background rates which change over the course of an experiment.
  • NEW: Completely new flowthrough respirometry workflow. There are four new flowthrough-specific functions and new functionality for exploring, calculating and adjusting rates from flowthrough respirometry data.
  • NEW: inspect and inspect.ft performs additional data checks: that columns contain numeric data and a check for infinite values
  • NEW: Rates can now be output as surface area-specific rates via the area input in convert_rate (accepts "mm2", "cm2", "m2", "km2"). You can also use day as the time metric in output rates (e.g. "mgO2/day/m2")
  • NEW: auto_rate "rolling" method. Performs fixed-width rolling regressions across the entire dataset with no ordering of results. This pairs nicely with the new subset_rate function to allows users full control of selection criteria (albeit with fixed width regressions)
  • NEW: auto_rate "highest" and "lowest" methods for absolute minimum and maximum of rates regardless of sign
  • NEW: Several new dissolved oxygen units are now supported in convert_DO and convert_rate including percent oxygen saturation, moles of oxygen, and more.
  • NEW: convert_val function. A simple conversion function to help with inputting experimental parameters in the correct units.
  • citation("respR") returns the citation to the respR journal publication, including a BibTeX entry for LaTeX users or other applications which accept this.
  • Help documentation and vignettes rewritten and greatly expanded
  • Tested with R 4.1 and the new native pipes (|>)
  • Tested with Apple Silicon builds of R

=============================== General Changes ================================

  • CHANGE: S3 Generic functions (print(), summary(), plot()) revised to produce cleaner, consistent outputs.
  • CHANGE: Added $rank column to all $summary tables as first column to helps with consistent S3 summary outputs and generally keeping track of summary rows
  • CHANGE: Documentation terminology clarifed. Rates now referred to as “absolute” (for whole animal or chamber) and mass- or area-specific.
  • CHANGE: Updated startup message for full MEE citation
  • CHANGE: Changed the data frame in output objects to $dataframe for consistency (was previously $df, $data, $dataframe, etc.)
  • CHANGE: For consistency, changed primary function inputs from df to x where appropriate (auto_rate, inspect, inspect.ft, subsample). This was inconsistent and often confusing, in that df often did not have to be a data frame, but could be a different class of object.
  • CHANGE: The deprecated functions inspect_data and pcrit have been removed
  • CHANGE: Outputs (where relevant) have function call saved to $call element
  • CHANGE: Outputs (where relevant) have all inputs saved to $inputs element
  • CHANGE: Messages, warnings and errors now state what function they originate from. This was not always clear, especially in pipes
  • FIX: Proper par() restoration behaviour.

======================== Function specific changes =============================

================================== inspect() ===================================

  • NEW: Checks that each column contains numeric data. This is the most important check, and if any column fails, the function skips the remaining checks for that column and returns a NULL result

  • NEW: Checks for infinite values (Inf/-Inf) in all inspected columns

  • NEW: If uneven time intervals are detected, it now prints the minimum and maximum intervals found in the time data which can help indicate if there is a large gap in the data

  • NEW: Added a width input to adjust rolling rate plot (default is 0.1)

  • NEW: An additional data type (for example temperature, salinity, etc.) can be plotted alongside the oxygen timeseries by using the input. This should be a column number from the same input data frame and share the same time data. Data checks are not performed on this column (unless all columns are specifically inspected), it is simply a plotting aid to understand where the parameter may affect rates in different regions of the data. There is similar functionality in inspect.ft.

  • NEW: Can pass rate.rev = FALSE to plot rates not numerically reversed (for oxygen production respirometry)

  • NEW: Can pass legend = FALSE to suppress legends

  • NEW: summary() now works on output (although it’s simply a wrapper for print())

  • CHANGE: Multiple rate plot improved. Now all plot on same axis range, better colours and spacing.

  • CHANGE: Prints NA locations for all oxygen columns they are found in (previously only printed for first column)

  • CHANGE: If multiple columns are inspected, message that columns 1 and 2 are used by default by subsequent functions, although all are inspected.

  • CHANGE: Stops if oxygen or time columns are not present in the input, or conflict with each other

  • CHANGE: Prints on assigning

  • CHANGE: Output has additional elements $call, $inputs and $

  • CHANGE: Output $list and $list_raw renamed $locs and $locs_raw

  • FIX: Rolling rate plot failed with even a single NA in time or oxygen data.

  • FIX: Fix for points sometimes being plotted twice slightly offset in large datasets.

  • FIX: Any time error locations are now printed when multiple oxygen columns are inspected

================================ calc_rate() ===================================

  • NEW: Plot updated with title showing the rank of the current plot. It also now plots oxygen and rate against both time and row index

  • NEW: Now calculates from start of the data if from = NULL, and to the end of the data if to = NULL

  • NEW: S3 Generics: plot() has the additional inputs panel to plot selected panels individually, and legend to suppress the legend and other labels.

  • CHANGE: Detects and warns about multi-column inputs

  • CHANGE: Output elements have been renamed

  • CHANGE: Most $summary columns have been renamed and reordered to be consistent with other functions

  • CHANGE: Plots full 4 panel plot by default

  • FIX: by = "proportion" and by = "oxygen" now work correctly with oxygen production data. Previously these methods didn’t work with rising oxygen as the code for finding the from-to values assumed it was decreasing. Now it identifies all data within the range of from-to. Essentially this makes from-to interchangeable. Note this change means with some data it may give slightly different results than v1.1 because of the way the from-to region is identified internally. With most data any difference in rates should be very minor.

  • FIX: Fix for failure to plot with very small datasets (2-5 values)

  • FIX: Fix for failing to work when there were NA in the time data

================================ auto_rate() ===================================

  • NEW - "rolling" method. Performs simple rolling regression of specified width, with no ordering of results. This pairs nicely with the new subset_rate function to allows users full control of selection criteria (albeit with fixed width regressions)

  • NEW "highest" and "lowest" methods for absolute minimum and maximum rate values regardless of sign. These can only be used when rates all have the same sign.

  • NEW "maximum" and "minimum" methods. These work the opposite way to "min" and "max" from v1.1. These are strictly numerical, and order by value taking account of the sign.

  • NEW: Added the Kernel Density metric $density to the $summary table for the "linear" method. This allows you to see how the results are ranked in regards to KDE (also present for other methods, but as an NA column).

  • NEW: Added $oxy and $endoxy to the $summary table, so you can easily see roughly how much of an oxygen change each regression is using to calculate a rate. This matches the summary table in calc_rate and calc_rate.ft

  • NEW: Plot updated with title showing the rank of the current plot. It also now plots oxygen and rate against both time and row index.

  • NEW: Can pass rate.rev = FALSE to plot rates not numerically reversed (for oxygen production respirometry)

  • NEW: S3 Generics: plot() has the additional inputs panel to plot selected panels individually, and legend to suppress the legend and other labels.

  • CHANGE: The "min"and "max" methods have been deprecated. They still work and produce the same results as in v1.1, but have a prominent warning. These will be removed entirely in a later version of respR.

  • CHANGE: Under the "linear" method, occasionally linear regions which were identical but had different density scores were identified. The lower ranked duplicate results are now removed.

  • CHANGE: The width input behaviour has changed slightly. Previously if it was a value between 0 and 1 it represented a proportional width of the whole dataset regardless of the by input. This now applies only to by = "row". If by = "time" any value between 0 and 1 now represents (as with values above 1) a time window in the units of the time data.

  • CHANGE: Reordered inputs to put method second

  • CHANGE: Summary table reordered to be consistent with other functions

  • CHANGE: Tidied and reordered summary S3 printout. Summary table comes first, density result printed more compactly for "linear" method

  • CHANGE: The rolling regression plot (panel 3) is now plotted on the same x-axes of time and row as the full timeseries plot, and has better spacing.

  • CHANGE: Prints all results of "interval" method regardless of pos or width inputs

  • FIX: plot() now works correctly on auto_rate objects

  • FIX: Fix for stopping with an obscure message when input datasets are small

  • FIX: Removed unused method "default"

  • FIX: Fix for plots failing when the result contained an NA

  • FIX: method = "max" was missing $total_regs element from metadata

  • FIX: Fixed an issue whereby under by = "time" and method = "linear" a non-proportional width (i.e. greater than 1) would get incorrectly passed as a row width rather than a time width. This was only an issue in data where time and row spacing were mismatched, for instance where time was in minutes or hours, or in seconds but not at one second intervals. This would not have affected returned rate values, but instead led to poor ranking of the returned rates.

  • FIX: Fixed an issue where the function would fail when assembling final output

  • FIX: Fixed an issue where rates would not be returned over regions which contained NA values. The function is now generally much more robust to missing values (though input data should wherever possible not contain NA values).

=============================== adjust_rate() ==================================

  • NEW: Completely rewritten to allow several new methods, including dynamic background correction. It has the same original inputs (x, by) plus five additional ones. The method defaults to "mean" so previous code will output the same results as it did in v1.1, but there is a great deal of new functionality.

  • CHANGE: In the output, $corrected changed to $rate.adjusted, and $input.rate changed to $rate.input

  • FIX: The adjustment column was missing from $summary table

  • FIX: summary() now works correctly on objects

  • FIX: print() prints adjustment correctly if pos > 1

=============================== convert_rate() =================================

  • NEW: Can now convert to surface area-specific rates via the area input (accepts "mm2", "cm2", "m2", "km2")

  • NEW: Can now import data and output rates using "day" as the time unit e.g. "mgO2/day/m2"

  • NEW: Can now output oxygen used in moles e.g. "molO2/day/kg"

  • NEW: Can now accept input oxygen concentration units in moles e.g. "mol/L", "mol/kg" and percent oxygen saturation ("%Oxy"). Because of this % air saturation is now "%Air" and the previous "%" operator for this has been deprecated.

  • CHANGE: The o2.unit input has been renamed to oxy.unit

  • CHANGE: oxy.unit = NULL and time.unit = NULL now stop the function instead of applying a default unit

  • CHANGE: Now applies a default output.unit for mass- and area specific rates as well as absolute rates

  • CHANGE: The output.unit oxygen amount component now has “O2” appended to ensure it is not confused with the mass-specific component. For example, "mgO2/h/mg", "umolO2/day/kg". These variations are also accepted as inputs.

  • CHANGE: output elements have been renamed (e.g. $output to $rate.output, $absolute to $rate.absolute etc.).

  • FIX: summary() prints summary table as columns correctly

================================== oxy_crit() ==================================

  • NEW: This replaces the calc_pcrit function from v1.1

  • NEW: method input. This selects the method to use to determine the critical oxygen value. At present either "bsr" for Broken-Stick or "segmented" for the Segmented method. Previously both were performed.

  • NEW: thin input. Defaults to 5000. This applies only to the Broken-Stick regression analysis. If the dataset is longer than this, this determines the number of rows it is uniformly subsampled to before running the analysis. The BSR method is quite computationally intensive, so this speeds it up. In testing, values above this have little effect on the result, but this may vary with different data. To prevent any subsampling and use the entire dataset enter this as NULL.

  • NEW: S3 Generics: plot() has the additional inputs legend, quiet, rate.rev and panel.

  • NEW: S3 Generics: summary() allows results to be exported via export = TRUE.

  • CHANGE: parallel = FALSE is now the default. Use parallel = TRUE to use parallel processing if your datasets are particularly large and the function is taking too long to process.

  • CHANGE: Uptake rates are now plotted as negative in the rolling rate plot on a reversed y-axis. Plots look the same, but y-axis values are now negative. There is a rate.rev input to control this, for instance if you are using the function with existing positive rate values.

  • CHANGE: An increase to the internal thin value (see above) from 1000 to 5000 may mean results will differ slightly from the previous version, but should be more accurate.

  • CHANGE: Output has been completely restructured and elements renamed. Previous code used to extract results will likely now not work.

  • FIX: Fixed issue which caused a failure if the package wasn’t loaded but function was called, i.e. using respR::oxy_crit()

  • FIX: Fix for plot failure when results were very close together.

================================ import_file() =================================

  • NEW: Imports European style formatted numeric data which uses commas instead of points for decimals.

  • NEW: Support for Presens Datamanager files

  • CHANGE: Importing now generally does not remove any columns (e.g. empty or NA columns). Column naming is now much improved (e.g. unique names, data type linked to channel IDs, etc.).

  • FIX: Fix for PreSens Oxyvew csv and txt files not being imported as numeric. Now separate parsing for each.

  • FIX: Fix for MiniDot files not being imported as numeric.

  • FIX: Fix for Pyro/Firesting numeric columns being imported as character when Firesting software replaces missing data with “—”

================================ format_time() =================================

  • CHANGE: Numeric time column name changed from elapsed to time.num

  • FIX: Fix for not appending new numeric time column onto a data.table

  • FIX: Fix for data frame columns being renamed on return

  • FIX: Fix for not working with multiple date-time columns if one of them wasn’t column 1

  • FIX: Fix for failing to format date-times which were already in POSIX/POSIX.ct format

================================ convert_val() =================================

  • New function for doing simple conversions between volume, time, mass, area and pressure units
  • Useful for functions that have some inputs which must be in specific units, such as convert_DO and convert_rate. See Examples.

=============================== =================================

  • NEW: The oxygen timeseries is now plotted against both time and row index

  • NEW: Plots have legend input to suppress equation text boxes

  • CHANGE: In the output $bgrate changed to $, and $mean changed to $

  • CHANGE: Stops if oxygen or time columns not present in the input, or conflict with each other

  • CHANGE: Removed “input detected” message at start

================================ convert_DO() ==================================

  • NEW: Added support for % oxygen saturation ("%O2") units. % air saturation is now "%Air" and the previous "%" operator for this has been deprecated

  • NEW: Added support for oxygen concentration units of mol/L and mol/kg

  • NEW: Added support for oxygen concentration units of cm3/L. This is a scarce unit, only used in older publications and is equivalent to ml/L.

  • NEW: Added simplify input. The default is simplify = TRUE and means the converted values are output as a numeric vector, rather than within a list object. If FALSE the output is a list object of class convert_DO which works with print(), summary(), and mean()

  • CHANGE: Removed ability to accept objects of class calc_rate, auto_rate or adjust_rate. This didn’t make any sense in this function as rates are not a DO measure!

  • CHANGE: Added warning for P atmospheric pressure values being outside a realistic range.

  • FIX: Fix for error with non-numeric x inputs

================================ unit_args() ===================================

  • NEW: Updated for new units (time in days, oxygen in mol and %O2) and more detail of which functions accept which units
  • NEW: Updated with units for flowrates used in the new flowthrough respirometry workflow

================================= subsample() ==================================

  • NEW: Now works on vectors as well as data frames
  • NEW: Added length.out input which uniformly subsamples to an exact number of rows (data frames) or length (vectors)
  • FIX: Now works with multicolumn data frames and plots them correctly (first data column only)

=============================== subset_data() ==================================

  • NEW: Support for inspect.ft objects

  • NEW: Added quiet input to allow console output to be suppressed

  • NEW: Now subsets from start of the data if from = NULL, and to the end of the data if to = NULL

  • CHANGE: Updated help documentation, particularly to specify that by = "oxygen" or by = "proportion" applies to first column only in multi-column dataframes

  • CHANGE: Warns if output subset is empty

  • FIX: Fix for failure with inspect() objects

  • FIX: by = "proportion" and by = "oxygen" now work correctly with oxygen production data. Note this now generally results in longer subsets than v1.1 code because of a change in identifying where to is within the data.

============================== flowthrough data ================================

  • NEW: inspect.ft

  • NEW: calc_rate.ft

  • NEW: adjust_rate.ft

  • NEW: convert_rate.ft

  • This is a completely new workflow specific to flowthough respirometry data. See help documentation and vignettes for full details.

==================================== data ======================================

  • CHANGE: Example data are now all data.table
  • CHANGE: flowthrough.rd amended to make delta column (i.e. unitless rates) negative values to be consistent with how uptake rates are always negative in the package
  • CHANGE: flowthrough.rd column names changed to time, oxy.out, and
  • CHANGE: zeb_intermittent.rd column names changed to Time and Oxygen
  • CHANGE: sardine.rd has had a Temperature column added (to demonstrate the new inspect() functionality to plot an additional data type)

NEW: New example datasets

  • algae.rd: oxygen production data
  • flowthrough_mult.rd: multiple column flowthrough data
  • flowthrough_sim.rd: flowthrough data with increasing background recording
  • background_con.rd: constant level background, for testing new background correction functionality
  • background_lin.rd: linear increasing background, for testing new background correction functionality
  • background_exp.rd: exponential increasing background, for testing new background correction functionality

================================= S3 Methods ===================================

  • mean.adjust_rate

  • mean.adjust_rate.ft

  • mean.auto_rate

  • mean.calc_rate


  • mean.calc_rate.ft

  • mean.convert_rate

  • mean.convert_rate.ft

  • NEW: These are new generic S3 functions for calculating mean rates, and work on the relevant function output rate. None alter the output object, but have an export input so the mean values can be exported as a numeric value if export = TRUE. They also have a pos input (where relevant) to select a range of rates to average. Most useful is mean.convert_rate which can be used to output a final mean rate at the end of an analysis.

  • mean.convert_DO

  • NEW: This works as the above but averages converted oxygen values from convert_DO. The output must have been saved as a convert_DO object for this to work by using simplify = FALSE (otherwise convert_DO by default outputs a numeric vector upon which mean() works anyway and gives the same result).

  • NEW: All plot() S3 have a quiet input to suppress console output

  • NEW: All summary() S3 (where appropriate) have export = TRUE for export of summary table or value

  • NEW: All S3 (where appropriate) have pos input to select positions or ranks of results to plot, print or average, and stop with an error if pos is too high

  • NEW: Plotting functions accept the generic par() inputs oma, mai, tck, mgp, las, and pch via ... to allow default parameters to be changed. Particularly useful are las = 1 to make axis labels horizontal and adjusting the second (left side) of the four mai (inner margins) input to make y-axis labels more readable.

  • CHANGE: Consistently named inputs (for summary() the first input should be object, but in all others it is x)

  • CHANGE: All console output prints more consistently with nicer spacing, especially in pipes

  • FIX: In auto_rate S3 methods stop with a message if no rates found in object (this can happen with over-enthusiastic subsetting in the new subset_rate function)

  • FIX: All revised to work correctly with |> or %>% pipes

Version 1.1.1

This is the final release of v1 of respR.

There is only one change, the addition of function called installation_help. This function simply opens its own help file. It contains resources which may be helpful in running v1 code in the future, such as a list of dependencies and the latest versions known to work with v1.1.1, and how to install them. This is intended for users who have recently submitted v1.1 code as part of a publication, and investigators who may wish to reproduce their analyses in the future.

The reason this may be necessary is because version 2.0 of respR will be released shortly and contains several code-breaking changes which means code written using v1.x will fail to run or return the same results. Using the information in this file an investigator should be able to install respR v1.1.1 and its dependencies and reproduce these analyses.

Version 1.1.0

Lots of updates! First, we have a new function, calc_pcrit(), which we will use to include new methods in the future. We’ve also made some improvements to import_file() with increased support to more files from Vernier, PRESENS and Loligo systems.

Vignettes have been migrated into a new repository on GitHub, and are now updated separately. This gives us several advantages – the documentation can be updated without needing to compile a new package, and the size of the package is significantly reduced. Users can also contribute to the documentation more easily now that it is not tied to the package.

New Features

  • NEW: You can now grab the reference for respR by running citation("respR").
  • NEW: Loading respR will print a startup message containing links to our published manuscript and vignettes.
  • NEW: inspect() can now plot data with multiple columns when more than 2 columns are detected. For some people, this may provide a great overview of the data.
  • NEW: calc_pcrit() is a new function that will be developed in parallel to the current pcrit() function. In the future we intend to use calc_pcrit() to incorporate new methods.
  • NEW: import_file() supports even more files! Added more parsers for Vernier, PRESENS and Loligo systems.
  • NEW: format_time() can now calculate time elapsed even if date information is not provided (e.g. “HMS”-only data).
  • NEW: The by input in auto_rate(), calc_rate(), and subset_data() is now more forgiving with string input values (e.g. "oxygen", "Oxygen", "o2", "O2", etc. are recognised). To achieve this we created a string matching function, by.val() which uses brute force matching to recognise different ways of writing the same text.


  • convert_DO():
    • FIX: Argument for "P" (pressure) was ignored even when a value was already specified, resulting in the default used. The function will now respect the "P" value provided.
    • FIX: The error message for an unrecognised unit was… cryptic. It has been changed and will now instruct the user on the proper syntax required to recognise units properly.
  • inspect():
    • FIX: Positive rates were not reflected accurately in plots.
    • FIX: Plot of rolling regression was not sensitive for smaller changes in datasets. The rolling window has been reduced to 10% of the length of the dataset to address this.
  • convert_rate():
    • FIX: Now stops if a "mass" input is provided but "output.unit" is not a mass-specific unit.
    • FIX: Properly accepts objects of class
    • FIX: Optimised the syntax for the recognition of output.unit in the code.
  • calc_rate.ft():
    • FIX: Critical error in returned rates sometimes outputting values with the wrong sign.
    • FIX: Optimised code - the "time" input has been removed as it was not used.
    • FIX: Properly accepts objects of class inspect.
  • pcrit():
    • FIX: Properly accepts objects of class inspect and inspect_data. Please note that the inspect_data() function is deprecated and will be removed in the near future.


This is a quick fix for images not showing in the online vignettes.

  • FIX: images not showing in two vignettes. If you didn’t notice it, it never happened…

Version 1.0.5

This version is aimed at improving the functionality and usability of our conversion functions. We have decided to remove the default values for temperature and salinity inputs in convert_DO() and convert_rate() (i.e. switched t and S numerics to NULL). This was no easy decision, but we noticed that some users were running the functions by default without considering (or even knowing the existence of) these two important input variables. With this change, existing workflows using calc_DO() and calc_rate()are likely to break. Do note that this is a very rare modification – we know that changing core functionality that breaks prior code is not something to be taken lightly. Please update these two functions respectively.

  • NEW: Additional vignettes added.
  • UPDATE: Refreshed current vignettes. Still a lot of work to do.
  • UPDATE: convert_DO() and convert_rate() now require the user to explicitly provide t (temperature) and S (salinity) values.
  • UPDATE: convert_DO() and convert_rate() will warn the user when the default P value is used for O2 units that are strongly influenced by atmospheric pressure.
  • UPDATE: unit_args() has been updated to indicate which O2 units need inputs of t, S and P.
  • FIX: inspect() has a better-looking plot for rolling regressions.

Version 1.0.4

This version updates the new functions from 1.0.0 and tries to improve piping workflows.

  • HOTFIX: import_data() was not importing firesting files properly.
  • FIXED: subset_data() - objects produced by this function can now be immediately passed on to other functions. subset_data() is a lesser known function but it’s very useful, e.g. for truncating intermittent data before analyses. It’s been updated work well with other functions, and can also be piped.
  • FIXED: We lowered the R version requirement even further, now people with R versions >3.3.0 should be able to run respR.
  • UPDATE: import_data() - works with a lot more files. Now supports: Firesting Logger | Pyro Oxygen Logger (also Firesting) | PRESENS OXY10 | PRESENS (generic) | MiniDOT | Loligo Witrox Logger | Loligo AutoResp (software output). Get more files to us, people!
  • NEW: better feedback from console outputs during piping.
  • NEW: better piping! You can now chain print() and plot() commands, which is useful in some cases e.g. checking the top 3 results and plots of auto_rate().

Version 1.0.0

The big update! Maybe it’s time to submit to CRAN?

  • UPDATE: We edited some examples to reduce processing times during R CMD checks.
  • UPDATE: The packages dplyr and magrittr are now imported into respR.
  • UPDATE: Now requires R 3.5.0
  • NEW: import_file(): automatically import and format raw files from common devices. This function is not complete but needs to be put out there for user feedback. It’s stable, just doesn’t support all available machines yet. We expect this function to be improved dramatically once users send in feedback and sample files.
  • FIX: dplyr pipes now work after print() and summary() commands. Will add support for plot() depending on feedback.
  • FIX: adjust_rate(): minor print issue (new line required) that was messing with the console output.
  • UPDATE: adjust_rate() documentation has been updated.

Version 0.1.0

  • Updates to documentation and a couple of stability fixes to improve performance. We will push the CRAN submission at version 1.0.0 now, while we work on a few more things.
  • FIX: inspect() should now work with pipes.
  • FIX: inspect() had issues with data.table objects, so we switched to data.frame.

Version 0.0.7

  • HOTFIX: did not subset data properly in certain usage scenarios (see #49)

Version 0.0.6

We are getting close to a 0.1 release, which will be ready for CRAN.

  • HOTFIX: More robust method of parsing data-time data to start at the defined start time in format_time(), which fixes some errors with zeroing in some numeric data.

Version 0.0.5

  • NEW: Added new function format_time(). This function is a wrapper for lubridate functions and is used specifically to convert date-time to numeric time.
  • NEW: Added replacement function inspect() that contains much cleaner code. The old function inspect_data() was tough to fix. It will be deprecated in a future update, but will still be supported for at least 18 months after we announce the deprecation. For now, users need not worry about using either function.
  • Updated: calc_rate(),, calc_rate.ft(), and auto_rate() are updated to work with inspect(). (TODO: calc_rate.ft() still needs to be fixed.)
  • NEW: Vignette for auto_rate() is now available.
  • NEW: Performance benchmark vignette for auto_rate()’s linear detection method is now available.
  • NEW: sim_data(): simulate data for benchmark analyses.
  • NEW: test_lin(): perform benchmark analyses specific for auto_rate()’s linear detection (i.e. methods = "linear").
  • UPDATE: All plot outputs in the package have been updated. They are now “cleaner”. Users are encouraged to provide feedback on our plot outputs as we can update them easily without changing the underlying analyses.
  • FIX: Rogue parenthesis code in auto_rate() fixed (it was messing with print() commands).

Version 0.0.4

  • HOTFIX: convert_rate() fails when output contains “mmol”. Fixed.

Version 0.0.3

  • FIX: More updates to documentation.
  • FIX: Workaround to show pcrit() example on website.

Version 0.0.2

  • FIX: Major updates to documentation.
  • NEW: subset_data() now contains examples.
  • NEW: Flowthrough vignette is now integrated into website.
  • FIX: inspect_data() plot output was plotting only columns 1 and 2 by default, even when other columns are selected in inputs.
  • FIX: convert_rate() was not accepting objects of class calc_rate.ft.

Version 0.0.1

  • Stable release.


  • Dev release on Github.